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Posts Tagged ‘arabic alchemy’

Schrödinger's Undead Cat

Schrödinger’s Undead Cat

This post will be out of sequence compared with the subjects around it, but I need to post this today so my chemistry students can make use of the resources here during class.

As part of the STEM-Arts Alliance project I’ve implemented in my science classes over the last two years, I’ve tried out a number of different ways to help students learn STEM concepts through art and history. You’ve hopefully looked at some of the other projects we’ve done, such as making iron-gall ink and watercolor pigments, junk sculptures, element ornaments, stop motion animation, etc. For our recent project, my students and I have created a large banner, which is a timeline of the history of atomic theory.

Greek philosophers: Anaximander, Anaxemines, Heraclitus, and Parmenides. Illustrations by David Black.

Greek philosophers: Anaximander, Anaxemines, Heraclitus, and Parmenides. Illustrations by David Black.

I designed the banner to fit along one wall of my classroom. It is 15 feet long and four feet wide, except where a chunk had to be cut out to avoid the door. Each student selected an atomic theorist from a list and researched that person, writing up a long paragraph on who they were, what they did to advance our understanding of the atom, and why it was significant. In addition to this caption, the students also had to find a photo or illustration of the person and another of their theories or apparatus. Most of these were images found on the Internet, but a few were original drawings. One of my students, Katie, drew a picture of Erwin Schrödinger with a zombie cat emerging from his brain – well, the cat is both alive and dead, so it must be an undead cat . . .

Paracelsus, drawn by a student using homemade iron-gall ink.

Paracelsus, drawn by a student using homemade iron-gall ink.

My students then used my color printer to print their captions and illustrations out and glue them onto the banner paper at the approximately correct position for the timeline. We focused on the period from about 1700 through the present, and I included images from the Powerpoints I created to explain quantum numbers and atomic theory. I am posting those Powerpoints here as .pdf files so my students can download them:

Quantum_Numbers-small

Atomic Theory-s

The entire banner with students from my chemistry class.

The entire banner with students from my chemistry class.

In addition to the 1700-present section, I included images, photos, illustrations, and text from all of history as humanity has learned to work with materials, isolated the elements, and proposed theories to explain what they observed. I also included materials on alchemy in the Middle Ages, China, and Arabian countries. Some of these were photos I had taken of ancient texts while at the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philadelphia during the summer of 2009; I’ve been meaning to put them in a format that students can use.

Students answering questions at the banner.

Students answering questions at the banner.

Once the banner was done, I wrote up a series of questions based on the students’ captions as well as my Powerpoints and the Periodic Table History video I made five years ago. Today my chemistry students are continuing to read the banner and write the answers to the questions as a take home test. Here are the questions:

Atomic Theory Banner Assignment

The Stone Age section of the banner

The Stone Age section of the banner

I am also posting photos of the major sections of the banner here as well so that they can access the banner online over the next several days.

Here are the sections of the banner:

The Bronze Age through Roman times

The Bronze Age through Roman times

Medieval and Renaissance sections of the banner.

Medieval and Renaissance sections of the banner.

The Scientific Revolution section of the banner

The Scientific Revolution section of the banner

Sub-Atomic particles

Sub-Atomic particles

Section on Rutherford and Einstein

Section on Rutherford and Einstein

Schrodinger section of the banner.

Schrodinger section of the banner.

The Standard Model section of the banner

The Standard Model section of the banner

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Nuremburg Chronicles Empedocles

Anaxagoras and Empedocles, from the Nuremburg Chronicles

In my last post, I showed the statistics of what this blog has accomplished so far. I feel very good about where we’ve been, but now it’s time to describe where I plan on going this coming year.

Given that I am not teaching chemistry this school year, my work on the Elements Unearthed project has slowed down a bit as my attention has been diverted elsewhere by the astrobiology projects (the podcasts and CLOE animations) and other projects that I’ll describe next week. I anticipate teaching chemistry again next year, and I am in the process of writing up a series of grant proposals (all of which have to be done by Feb. 1) that, if successful, will provide funds for purchasing some iPad tablets and probeware that will allow us to do some environmental field research.

fluorite and emerald

Fluorite and emerald crystals in the collection of Keith Proctor

In the meantime, I have a large backlog of videos that I have taped of various mine tours and interviews I’ve done across the country. I need to edit these into final videos and report on them in detail on this site. In order to keep myself on track, I’ve created a schedule for when I’d like to do each video and the topics I’ll cover here as I work on them.

This January, 2012, I am going to start at the beginning and look at ancient chemistry and our knowledge of the elements in prehistoric and early historic times. Then in February, I will start to work on my Greek Matter Theories videos. I have previously created all the script and narration and have even set up the video files and begun the graphics and animations. It’s high time I finished these. I’ll start with an overview of the Greek Ideal in philosophy and science, then talk about Thales and the Miletian School, then Parmenides and Zeno and the Eleatics. In March, I will talk about Heraclitus and Empedocles and the atomic theory and Plato. In April, I’ll move on to Aristotle, Epicurus, and the debate on elements versus atoms, ending in the theology of St. Thomas Aquinus and how atomic theory came down through the Middle Ages.

In May and June I’ll discuss the practical side of chemistry, with a look at ancient crafts, including metalworking, glass making, and other medieval technologies, including a detailed look at Agricola’s De Re Metallica (which I have many photos of).

Dalton molecules

Diagrams of molecules by John Dalton

By July I should have the funding I need in place to start the field research. My plan is to partner with another school, perhaps Tintic High School or Wendover High School, to travel out to nearby mining sites and use the probeware and iPads to collect and record data on soil and water environmental conditions, such as the pH of soil and runoff water near old mine dumps. I’m especially interested in seeing if the EPA efforts to mitigate contaminated soil in and around Eureka, Utah have been successful. I’ve talked about those efforts in previous posts (especially here: https://elementsunearthed.com/2010/06/09/the-legacy-of-the-tintic-mining-district/ ), so I won’t talk about them again now. We would use GPS coordinates and GoogleEarth to set up a grid of sample sites both in and out of the recovered area. We would sample the surface and two feet below ground. It would require several trips and coordination with local students to gather the data, but it is a project that would fit very nicely with the research I’ve already done. If I can get enough money together, I would like to rent a portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer which can read element abundances nondestructively on the site.

In preparation for all this, I need to make one more trip to the Tintic district in June to photograph and videotape the mines in the southwest area, which were the first mines discovered, including the Sunbeam and Diamond mines. One of my great grandfathers, Sidney Tanner Fullmer, died as a result of injuries suffered in an accident while working in the Diamond mine, leaving my grandmother an orphan to be raised by her aunt and uncle. So this history has a particular interest to me.

One thing I plan on doing, if we can work out a partnership, is to set up an evening in Eureka at Tintic High School where townspeople can come in with photographs and tell their stories of mining and life in Eureka before and after the EPA efforts. We’ll scan the photos and videotape the recollections, then combine all that with the video I’ve already done of the Tintic Mining Museum and local area. Ultimately, my students will help me script and edit a three-part video on the Tintic District, perhaps even done well enough that we could market it to KUED, the PBS station in Salt Lake City.

Tintic load site

Ore loading platform in the Tintic Mining District

The months July, August, and September will be dedicated to this effort and will result in the best documentation created so far on video of the history and present of the Tintic Mining District.

October will be dedicated to Zosimos of Panopolis and such Arabic alchemists as Jabir ibn Hayyan. November will begin a discussion of European alchemists, from Roger Bacon and Ramon Llull through the Middle Ages. I’ll draw on the many photos I’ve taken on alchemical texts at the Chemical Heritage Foundation. The history of alchemy will continue through December, 2012 and on into January, 2013. In February and March, 2013, we’ll discuss the emergence of modern chemistry through Boyle, Priestley, and Lavoisier through Dalton, Avogadro, Berzelius, and others.

In April through June of 2013 we will switch gears and talk about nucleogenesis and the origin of the elements, then the physicists and chemists that have helped us understand the structure of the atom and quantum mechanics. From there, I will probably begin to talk about individual elements and how they are mined and refined, with examples of the mining districts where they come from, such as the history of the Viburnum Trend in Missouri and the lead mines there, or the gold mines of Cripple Creek, Colorado. I really do have enough materials now to keep this blog going for at least two years. And I’ll be gathering more all the time. I will also dedicate occasional posts to my efforts as a chemistry teacher and to science education in general, including my experiences at conferences, etc.

Van Helmont

Portrait of Joannes Baptista van Helmont

Well, it is an ambitious schedule. I hope to do at least one post per week, probably on weekends. I hope to complete at least one video segment every two months or so. Next week, I’ll start us off with an overview of the history of chemistry.

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